cross cultural consumer research

Kent Monroe, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 718-722. If the U.S. continues the trend toward "ethnic upsurges" as noted by Schlesinger (1991) in his book, The Disuniting of America, continued research with additional subcultures represented is warranted. {�����Э��u�ǻO��?�}���y������Cs���t��}��wD&D^T٧�Y��LUY]i������ ����c���\��u��,�Ů��o��� K! 10, eds. 12, eds. This article reviews the cultural relationships with the self, personality, and attitude, which are the basis of consumer behavior models and branding and advertising strategies. Wallendorf, Melanie and Michael D. Reilly (1983b), "Ethnic Migration, Assimilation and Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (December), 292-302. In addition, the Asian or Oriental subculture deserves more attention. Many research studies specialising in marketing are currently focusing on cross-cultural variation in consumer behaviour (Beatty, Lynn, & Pamela 1991, p.154). Swagler, Roger M. (1977), "Information Patterns in Indigenous African Markets: A Lesson in Consumer Performance," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Clarke, Yvonne and Geoffrey N. Soutar (1982), "Consumer Acquisition Patterns for Durable Goods: Australian Evidence," Journal of Consumer Research, 8 (March), 456-460. Richins, Marsha L. and Scott Dawson (1990), "Measuring Material Values: A Preliminary Report of Scale Development," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. The aim of this thesis is to research similarities and differences culture has on consumer behaviour. 13, ed. Schaninger, Charles M., Jacques C. Bourgeois, and Christian Buss, (1985), "French-English Canadian Subcultural Consumption Differences," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Spring), 82-92. The research produced was largely descriptive. 17, eds. Glaser, Barney G. and Anselm Strauss (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Chicago, IL: Aldine. As might be surmised, the topics of consumer acculturation, adoption, decision processes and diffusion are frequently examined. 11, ed. Publication trends, cross-cultural similarities across seemingly diverse cultures, are discussed. 17, eds. Briefly stated, cross-cultural research is a field ripe for post-positivist inquiry. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 573-575. In reviewing the countries and cultures studied by consumer researchers during the last two decades, a diverse and substantial number of cultures have been investigated. A passion for understanding cross-cultural consumer behaviour One of the exciting aspects of being a PhD student is knowing your working on research that can have a valuable impact, not only in academia, but hopefully in society as well. Costa, Janeen Arnold (1990), "Toward an Understanding of Social and World Systemic Processes in the Spread of Consumer Culture: An Anthropological Case Study," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Sex differences, as a moderating variable, may represent an underlying variable accounting for differing levels of material importance on a cross-cultural basis (Arnould 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1988). C) cross-cultural analysis . © 2020 Association for Consumer Research, The Journal of the Association for Consumer Research (JACR). Tan, Chin Tiong, Jim McCullough, and Jeannie Teoh (1987), "An Individual Analysis Approach to Cross Cultural Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 16, ed. While materialism is generally accepted to be an important cultural trait in the U.S., it does not appear that materialism expressed through tangible possessions is culturally universal (Lee 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1988). Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 105-110. model of national culture. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 186-192. Yet initial findings suggest that cross-culturally, a fatalistic approach to life may affect behavioral intentions which in turn influence attitudes towards brand loyalty and perceived risk (Cote and Tansuhaj 1989; Gentry, Tansuhaj, Manzer, and John 1988; Mehta and Belk 1991; Saegert, Hoover, and Tharp 1985; Stanton, Chandran, and Lowenhar 1981). Once researchers began holding income constant, racial differences seemed to disappear as well as publication opportunities. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 110-118. As illustrated in Figures 6-8, a variety of consumer behavior topics are discussed in a cross-cultural context. Hence, language serves various functions in a cultural context. Although language may prove to be a poor segmentation variable, language preference is still the predominant determinant of acculturation in cross-cultural psychology literature and research suggests it may be instrumental in anticipating and encouraging diffusion of innovations among different cultures (Takada and Jain 1991). The large number of definitions and the fact that the term is used frequently in common conversation (with no apparent communication confusion) does not excuse scientific researchers from providing readers with a theoretical and/or operational definition of the construct under investigation. Publication trends, cross-cultural similarities across seemingly diverse cultures, are discussed. Sexton, Donald E. (1971), "Comparing the Cost of Food to Blacks and to WhitesCA Survey," Journal of Marketing, 35 (July), 40-46. Although several studies tried to build up integrative perspectives on cross-cultural consumer researches (Douglas and Craig, 1997), no integrated model is yet found in literature. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 71-74. Hawes, Douglass K., Sigmund Gronmo, and John Arndt (1978), "Shopping and Leisure Time: Some Preliminary Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Time-Budget Expenditures," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 411-417. Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT:Association for Consumer Research, 403-410. Helgeson, James G., E. Alan Kluge, John Mager, and Cheri Taylor (1984), "Trends in Consumer Behavior Literature: A Content Analysis," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (March), 449-454. Cote, Joseph and Patriya S. Tansuhaj (1989), "Culture Bound Assumptions in Behavior Intention Models," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Kirpalani, V.H. 10, ed. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 826-832. Nagashima, Akira (1970), "A Comparison of Japanese and U.S. Attitudes Toward Foreign Products," Journal of Marketing, 34 (January), 68-74. A frequency count of published research reveals that France was the most studied country followed by England and Japan. 14, eds. Yet, even the subcultures studied reflect the discipline's increasing range. Arnould, Eric J. and Richard R. Wilk (1984), "Why Do the Natives Wear Adidas?" J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 684-687. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 771-778. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1983), "Cognitive Structure Across Consumer Ethnic Subcultures: A Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Judging by the number of articles utilizing values and beliefs as operational definitions of culture, many researchers feel that the knowledge of value and belief systems is instrumental in understanding and predicting consumer behavior in cross-cultural settings (Henry 1976; Munson and McIntyre 1978; O'Guinn, Lee, and Faber 1986; Roth and Moorman 1988). Kim, Chankon, Michael Laroche, and Annamma Joy (1990), "An Empirical Study of the Effects of Ethnicity on Consumption Patterns in a Bi-Cultural Environment," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. However, because of the close link between materialism and tangible goods, U.S. researchers in particular must be aware of potential ethnocentric bias when using material possessions as cultural measures. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research 753-760. 1999; Williams and Aaker 2002). Answer: D. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 406. Each subculture is presented as a box. Patriya S. Tansuhaj, Washington State University, NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 22 | 1995, Nazli Gurdamar Okutur, London Business School, UK The focus of most cross-cultural research has been on geographic comparisons of consumers in Western countries (e.g., North America, Europe) and in non-Western ones, usually Asian countries (e.g., China, Japan, Korea, India; Han and Shavitt, 1994, Kim and Markus, 1999). While the early research was fundamental in sparking the interest on cross-cultural topics, as a society and discipline we have moved beyond "negro" perceptions to a broader-based African-American culture. 12, eds. Culture, on the other hand, is not bound by national or state borders. First, consumer behavior research that dealt with a country other than the U.S. was cited as cross-cultural. Imperia, Giovanna, Thomas C. O'Guinn, and Elizabeth A. MacAdams (1985), "Family Decision Making Role Perceptions Among Mexican-Americans and Anglo Wives: A Cross Cultural Comparison," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Figure 2 illustrates the diverse subcultures investigated as well as the trend away from studying the African-American subculture to studies of the Hispanic subculture in the mid-1980s. Review and future directions of cross-cultural consumer services research Jingyun Zhanga,⁎, Sharon E. Beattyb,1, Gianfranco Walshc,2 a Department of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA b Culverhouse College of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Alabama, P. O. The comprehensive literature review of cross-cultural consumer behavior research undertaken in this paper could advance the consumer behavior discipline in several ways. Tan, Chin Tiong and John U. Farley (1987), "The Impact of Cultural Patterns on Cognition and Intention in Singapore," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (March), 540-544. RESULTS Publication Trends Cross-cultural research has been steadily increasing since 1970, both in terms of the number of studies published (see Figure 1) and with respect to the countries explored (see Figures 3 - 5). 7, ed. Also, since some researchers examined more than one country or culture at a time, a single article may be cross-listed under several countries. 7, ed. Judging by the number of articles utilizing values and beliefs as operational definitions of culture, many researchers feel that the knowledge of value and belief systems is instrumental in understanding and predicting consumer behavior in cross-cultural settings (Henry 1976; Munson and McIntyre 1978; O'Guinn, Lee, and Faber 1986; Roth and Moorman 1988). 10, eds. Douglas (1987) reports a similar Japanese phenomenon where in certain areas of their lives, the Japanese are placing a growing emphasis on personal goals and achievement as opposed to group objectives. Cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research helps marketers to understand how the process of marketing to consumers, and the facilitation of marketing exchanges, must be re-examined when entering new national contexts. FIGURE 4 CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER STUDIES OF THE AMERICAS (EXCLUDING U.S.) AND AFRICA FIGURE 5 CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER BEHAVIOR RESEARCH ASIA AND AUSTRALIA FIGURE 6 OPERATIONALIZATION OF CULTURE: LANGUAGE Substituting tangible goods for representations of cultural values is intuitively appealing and overcomes many of the methodological challenges of accessing and evaluating consumers' internal beliefs and values which become further convoluted by cross-cultural analysis. J.C.Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 77-82. Only one study prior to 1975 (Pruden and Longman 1972) examined more than one subculture simultaneously. Yet, the literature on international marketing and cross-cultural consumer research has for the most part assumed culturally homogeneous national or regional markets, focusing instead on comparisons and differences between cultures separated by borders. 14, eds. Stanton, John, Rajan Chandran, and Jeffrey Lowenhar (1981), "Consumerism in Developing CountriesCThe Brazilian Experience," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. Under each country heading, the name of the first author and date of publication are noted in a "box." Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 555-561. In 1970, for example, the African American subculture was studied twice (as indicated by the letter "A"). Indeed, the term "culture" was scarcely seen in the literature until 1974 when the consumer behavior field came into its own journal and conference. REFERENCES Alexander, Katherine and James McCullough (1980), "Cultural Differences in Preventative Health Care Choice: A Study of Participation in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program Among Mexican-Americans" in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 17, eds. Socio-linguists postulate that language is important in the formation of thought patterns and behavioral responses (Douglas 1979). 17, eds. 12, eds. 17, eds. H.K. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 176-181. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 562. Material possessions and tangible goods, including food, represented another avenue pursued by consumer researchers to make operational definitions of the abstract culture concept more concrete. Douglas, Susan P. (1987), "Emerging Consumer Markets in Japan," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. McCracken, Grant (1989), "Who is the Celebrity Endorser? O'Guinn, Thomas C., Wei-Na Lee, and Ronald J. Faber (1986), "Acculturation: The Impact of Divergent Paths on Buyer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Behavior, Vol. In addition, the Asian or Oriental subculture deserves more attention. 23, International/Global Perspectives in Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research in the Twenty-First Century, pp. Finally, while most of the cross-cultural research dealt with industrialized cultures, articles that explicitly examined primitive (meaning nonindustrialized cultures indigenous to the geographical region) cultures are marked with "P" and will be discussed in a separate section. (1974), "Family Buying Decisions: A Cross-Cultural Perspective," Journal of Marketing Research, 11 (August), 295-302. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 576-578. Language and Culture. Leeflang, Peter S.H. Arndt Johan, Kjell Gronhang, Richard E. Homans, R. Neil Maddox, and Frederick E. May (1981), "Toward a Replication Tradition in Consumer Behavior: Cross-Cultural Replication of Bennett and Mandell's Study of the Learning-Information Seeking Hypothesis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 8, ed. However, the field remains ripe for additional research on explanations of cultural phenomena and impacts upon consumer behavior.

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