forensic document examination examples

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It provides, Types of Penetration Testing conducted by CyberSecurity professionals, The 5 Latest Cyber Security Technologies for Your Business, A Handy Guide on How to Report Online Harassment of Women, Formjacking Attacks – How Attackers are Stealing Payment Card Details, Social Media Regulations Before the 2019 General Elections in India, The Layers of the Web – Surface Web, Deep Web and Dark Web, How to Prevent Payment Card Frauds – 5 Common Debit and Credit Card Frauds, Application of Social Media Forensics to Investigate Social Media Crimes, Top 5 Social Engineering Attack Techniques Used by Cyber Criminals. Who verifies these documents that have a controversial origin or authenticity? Forensic Entomology – Using Insects for Forensic Investigations, Smart City Vishakapatnam’s Step towards a Dedicated Cyber Forensic Laboratory, Your Quick Guide to the Cyber Laws in India. The exhibits above were produced to illustrate mock trial testimony given in this case. Is the signature on the will indeed that of the deceased? Exemplars are examples of a person’s writing. • Stalking This article is designed to provide guidance on that issue. 2. The bottoms of the letters "D", "B", "O", and others are complete, although flattened. For example, a suicide note bearing a handwritten or typewritten text and a forged will, both can both be considered as a questioned document. • Cheques Handwriting and signature are unique to a particular individual. Conclusions: After a thorough examination of the questioned document, it is the examiner's opinion that the known writing (K1) and the questioned writing (Q1, Q2, and Q3) were written by the same person. Sometimes even documents that do not bear any visible mark is subjected to forensic document examination. Notice this small stroke on the "M"s shown here. My Dashboard; Pages; Forensic Case Report Examples; 2016-17 IVC Spring. Because ink chromatography is destructive to the document - a sample must be taken - it is generally used as a last resort. However, this branch of forensic science has significant applications in a wide range of cases, from homicides to kidnappings to medical malpractices. There is a small stroke toward the right at the end of many downward vertical strokes of letters such as "M", "N", "P", "T" and "H". • Rubber stamps, cheque-writers, and label and price markers However, when analyzed with an Electrostatic Detection Device (EDD), they reveal certain invisible impressions or indentations. The top line is the known writing. All that remains is for the original to be produced to ascertain that the questioned material was actually written on that document, and not placed there mecanically. The answer is Document Examiners trained in Questioned Document Examination. 1. Traditional Forensic Document Examination, and that undertaken by most FDEs, predominantly involves the examination of handwriting and signatures to ascertain authorship. • ID Cards This helps to produce evidence about a questioned document that is admissible in the court of law to prove its legitimacy. How about Forensic Science? Forensic document examination is all about analyzing and comparing questioned documents with known materials in other to ascertain the author of the document. The result is open space around the "I" of "Valentines" and to a lesser extent the "I" of "Sherriff's" in the Q1 and Q2. Collected Writing Specimens are handwriting samples of the subject, collected from the site or crime scene prior to the investigation. How Can Social Profiling Aid in the Hacking of Elections? • Suicide notes. • Contested Contracts. Forensic Document Examination helps answer questions whether the note was written by the deceased or someone trying to manipulate investigators? Procedures and Observations: All of the writing in this case was examined with the unaided eye and under microscope at magnifications from 7X through 25X. It need not necessarily be a ‘document’ per se. Color is achieved by using filters on the microcope's illuminators. Forensic Document Examiners Official Formation The ABFDE’s stated objectives are two‐fold: to establish, maintain and enhance standards of 1977 1956 qualification for those who practice forensic document examination, and to certify applicants who comply … It provides services for Questioned Document Examination including handwriting examination and other analyses for verifying the authenticity of a document. • Licenses In the case of typewritten questioned documents, Document Examiners go to the extent of examining the very machines that produced them. Document Examiners involved in handwriting examination divide handwriting samples into two types – Collected Writing Specimens and Requested Writing Specimens. Any document can undergo what's generally termed a document alteration. 6. • Printing processes Although there was not a large amount of writing, a conclusive opinion was possible. Our lead Forensic Document Examiner, Kate Strzelczyk, has given expert witness evidence on behalf of both the prosecution and the defence at a number of Crown and Magistrates' courts across the UK. Examples of these types of documents include: passports, security and identity documents, and share certificates. We work with attorneys, district attorneys, public defenders, police departments, investigators, banks, insurance companies, and other private entities, providing a wide range of document related services. So what happens in such cases? Sample Case - Sample Case, Report, and Exhibit. • Receipts Workers have reported the use of image processing techniques in forensic document examinations., , , , The present study aims to explore the uses of image processing techniques for the examination of computer manipulated documents. Forensic Document Examination or Questioned Document Examination involves the scientific examination of suspicious documents. This helps identify forged documents because different inks react differently when exposed to different frequencies of infrared light. Its state-of-the-art forensic laboratory and approach of staying abreast of the latest in technologies, terminology, and procedures renders IFF Lab a name that can be trusted. This exhibit shows top and bottom line straightness in K1 and Q2. Whether you are using an expert as a consultant or as a testifying wi… In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. This is obvious in the knowns, and even though Q1 - Q3 may have been formed against an artificial baseline, these strokes are evident in the "1" of "14" in Q1 and in the "P" and "M" of Q2. Forensic Document Examiners, Inc. is dedicated to providing professional forensic services in the field of questioned documents. Anonymous Writing. Target Document for Word Forensic Analysis. Our target Word document is a document created on 8/30/2018 8:19 PM (PDT) using Word 2007 on a computer running Windows 7 SP-1. Both known and questioned writings use entirely upper case letters with the possible exception of the "I" which may not always be in the form of the capital. Document Examiners have a crucial role to play in investigations involving a documentary evidence. Dating someone? For example, when a party (such as a civilly or criminally detained individual) or another in- ... throughout this document), replaces the 1991 “Specialty Guidelines for ... examination findings, and the opinions of other psycholegal experts. Therefore, the straigntness of the baseline is not due to the bottom of the writing being clipped off with scissors in a cut and paste maneuver. Forensic document examiners, on the other hand, are skilled forensics scientists with a demonstrated expertise in applied questioned document examination. • Watermarks The "O"s often join at the 9 or 10 o'clock position in both known and questioned writings. The most familiar area of questioned-document examination is handwriting analysis. The Application of Forensic Ballistics in Criminal Investigations, The 10 Basic Steps of Forensic Photography, The Branches of Forensic Science – An Overview of its Various Disciplines, 10 things that hackers can do by hacking into your smartphone, 5 Infamous Cases Solved Using Early Forensics, Why Cyber Security should be Digital India’s foremost priority, All that you need to know about Forensic Photography, How Criminal Profiling Offers an Insight into a Criminal’s Mind, How Forensic Science has Evolved Over Time, The Importance of Forensic Science in Criminal Investigations and Justice. Possibly this was done as a disguise factor. Document Examiners are mostly required to answer questions on the authorship or authenticity of a document. In the illustration (right) a glass plate containing an etched line has been placed on top of the questioned document and photographed to point out the straightness of the baseline and the flattened bottoms of the letters in Q1, 2 and 3. Handwriting samples, called exemplars, are collected for comparison with the questioned handwriting. Such changes that are not visible to the naked eye can be detected using photography and UV/IR imaging devices. Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession, damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions that come up when a document is challenged in court. Although there is no dot over the I to indicate a lower case letter, the simple "stick" form of the "I" is used and it varies in height. Learn the basics of forensic document examination in one year or less. For instance, a typewriter output always has certain exclusive properties. • Wills How healthcare IoT is vulnerable to cyber security threats, 5 things a student should know about an Advance Fee Scam, 5 cyber security threats to expect in 2018. It was saved as a DOC file by using the “Word 97-2003 Document” option in the file save dialog in Word. Document examiners trained in handwriting and signature analysis are thus able to identify a forged handwriting/signature from a genuine one. Letter spacing resembles elite or pica type in that it is non-proportional (every letter is given almost the same amount of horizontal space, regardless of its requirements). Some of these properties are the same for a particular model of the machine – electric/manual, carbon film ribbon/fabric ribbon etc. • Tampering and photo-substitution IFF Lab has a state-of-the-art forensic lab in Bangalore equipped with digital imaging instruments, microscopes and other specialized equipment for document analysis. IFF Lab provides digital and cyber forensic solutions across multiple verticals. How Fake News is the trending & booming dark net business, Top 10 cyber crimes in the history of cyber attacks, Seeking a Partner Online? The top lines are also quite straight, but are formed naturally by letters that are consistent in height. The baseline of K1 is basically straight, although lacking in the precision shown in Q1-3. Topics discussed include training and qualifications for forensic document examiners as well as the various methods used to exam differing projects, such as signatures, checks, computer and type generated documents, as well as obliterated writing. This same spacing is seen in the words "visiting", "times" "inmates" and "special" in the known writing. ... Forensic Document … Certain documents do not contain any distinguishing mark or note. This is a characteristic which could be more closely examined on the original document, but it is clear enough from the copy that this characteristic exists in both the known and questioned writing. Sample Case - Sample Case, Report, and Exhibit. Glass alignment plates were used to examine the baseline, top line and spacing of the writing. Handwriting examination enables document examiners to distinguish a forged handwriting from the genuine one. For example, documents kept below other documents while writing may contain impression evidence. • Rubber stamps, cheque-writers, and label and price markers, • Analysis of paper, ink and/or pencil used, Document Examiners involved in handwriting examination divide handwriting samples into two types –, Questioned Document Examination – Incognito Forensic Foundation (IFF Lab), Incognito Forensic Foundation (IFF Lab) is a private forensic science laboratory in India with offices in Bangalore and Chennai. What is Cyber Insurance? This has made document forgery a cakewalk for individuals with corrupt intentions. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. • Medical Malpractices The top line is from Q2 and the bottom is from K. The "M"s show further evidence of identity in the shape and movement of the center curved stroke and the small hitch in the line which occurs in the same place in each writing. These could help establish crucial links between a suspect and the crime. Why we need sources for exemplars. Forensic accounting utilizes accounting, auditing, and investigative skills to conduct an examination into a company or individual's financial statements. This is true in K1 and in Q1- 3. Questioned Document Examination is a branch of forensic science that deals with documents having a suspicious authenticity. The red is the questioned writing, the green is the known, and the black is where the two overlap. Documents such as letters, diaries, canceled cheques, medical records, business contracts or other legal documents containing a signature are good sources of writing samples. Handwriting comparison is the most common work performed by a questioned document examiner. Forensic Document Examination can reveal for evidence of alterations, obliterations, erasures and page substitutions. Copyright © 2001-2008 Emily J. The other examinations that are a part of Questioned Document Examination are: • Surface features Many countries in the world recognize that forensic document examination is vital to immigration and border control security and have a forensic document examination facility. • Counterfeiting Will All Rights Reserved. Question: Were Q1, 2 and 3 written by the same person who wrote the known writing? 8. At present, every other person is adept at using Adobe Photoshop, Acrobat and other visual editing software. Thinking of which career to choose? Forensic science - Forensic science - Questioned-document analysis: Questioned-document analysis involves a number of areas of forensic inquiry. • Suicides The different types of questioned documents could include any document having personal or business connotations. As examin-ers, forensic practitioners may assess an individual’s func- Why Does Your Organization Need to Build Cyber Resilience? Forensic Document Examination can reveal for evidence of alterations, obliterations, erasures and page substitutions. The properties of a questioned document that are examined include handwriting, signatures, and typewriting. Were they written by the same person who wrote the body of the document? In the world of forensic analysis, which includes crime scene investigation, DNA testing, fiber analysis, fingerprint analysis, voice identification and narcotics analysis, to name just a few of the disciplines, handwriting analysis fits into the area of questioned documents. This document provides information on the background, risk mitigation tactics, nonroutine offsite options, and additional considerations for the forensic examination of unclassified forensic digital/multimedia evidence. Determining printing processes and security features on identity documents are analyzed using a digital microscope for reviewing fine details. A Questioned Document can be a handwriting, signature, mark or any handwritten/typewritten document whose reliability or source is doubtful. Questioned Document Analysis by document examiners includes handwriting examination and the analysis of several other features of the questioned document. Real Life Example ... After an examination by the forensic pathologist, it was concluded that she had not been in the woods all that time since November. • Currency notes • Photocopied Documents The following writing characteristics are apparent: 1. 4. Let's find out in this lesson on alteration, obliteration, and ink examination. • Identity Theft Notice this in the words "associated", "protracted", "to one", "more" and "off-peak" in the known writing and with the word "woo woo" in Q3. Is the signature on a mortgage loan authentic? It is an apprenticeship field, requiring years of practice and work with an experienced examiner. Certified Questioned Document Examiner. Even burned or shredded documents can give significant leads to an investigation if they are reconstructed. It involves a close monitoring of the writer by the investigator and/or document examiner. • Bank Robberies • Laminated Documents Exemplar - a known handwriting sample; also called a standard. The World of Deepfakes – How can Deepfakes Impact Elections? • Analysis of paper, ink and/or pencil used. The case was atypical because it focused on printed rather than cursive writing. Q1 - Printed note written diagonally in the upper left corner of the QD, Q2 - Printed line "Sherriff's Department" written at top center of the QD, Q3 - Printed excalmation written diagonally in the upper right corner of the QD. This makes it possible for document examiners to identify forgery or alterations. 3. The Questioned Document is a photocopy of a government form. • Homicides Beware! Home; Syllabus; Modules; Chat; Student Course Evaluations; Instructor Course Evaluations Conclusions: After a thorough examination of the questioned document, it is the examiner's opinion that the known writing (K1) and the questioned writing (Q1, Q2, and Q3) were written by the same person. Ensure your safety with these tips. Its forensic document examiners are adept at analyzing different types of questioned documents using physical and other scientific methods. A Questioned Document can be In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law. The cross bar of the "A" and the buckle" of the "R" are positioned close to the baseline. Completed two years of full time in-residence forensic document examination training at a government laboratory; tested and certified. Forensic Document Examiners define a ‘questioned document’ as any material that contains marks, symbols or signs intended to communicate a message. Who wrote the anonymous note found at a crime scene? Incognito Forensic Foundation (IFF Lab) is a private forensic science laboratory in India with offices in Bangalore and Chennai. A requirement for a forensic handwriting expert to perform a handwriting examination is obtaining a sufficient number of examples of a person’s handwriting to use for comparison with the questioned writing. K1 refers to the known writing, and Q1,2 and 3 are the questioned writing. Document examiners sometimes use liquid chromatography to extract samples of ink from a questioned document for analysis. Forensic Document Examination or Questioned Document Examination involves the scientific examination of suspicious documents. Also called as Forensic Document Examination, it involves the application of scientific methods and principals for document examination. Cases of family disputes over wills and other significant documents with forged signatures are quite common. For typewritten documents, a detailed analysis of the printer and the printing process is done. Do you Need Cyber Insurance? Are you sure about your partner? • Title/Deed Lawsuits Questioned document examiners define a ‘questioned document’ as any piece of evidence that bears symbols, marks or signs meant for a communication. • Agreements How to Avoid and What to Do After a Data Breach? Issuing Authority: Division Commander Page 4 of 147 Issue Date: 10/28/15 Version 7. • Fraud Following are some cases where forensic document examination is applied to analyze different types of questioned documents. For example, in 1928 there was a famous case known as the Duke "Lost Heirs Case" which was tried in Somerville, NJ. Documents recovered from a crime scene or a suspect may also give crucial leads from impression evidence or indented writing. Civil cases worked by forensic document examiners in private practice include: disputed signatures on mortgage documents, wills, medical records alteration cases, contracts, deeds, loan documents, change of beneficiary forms, receipts, partnership agreements, non-compete agreements, anonymous letters in the work place, log entries, power of attorney, and health care forms. Ways in which Your Smart Home is Vulnerable to Hackers, Busting the Myths About Facebook’s Data Use, How to File a Cyber Crime Complaint in India, The History of Forensic Ballistics – Ballistic Fingerprinting. Imaging instruments such as a Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) use radiations of different wavelengths to identify additions, erasures or alternations. • Ink stamps The baseline of Q1, Q2 and Q3 is artificially straight and appears to have been formed by holding a straightedge on the paper as a guide. The Good and Bad of Cryptocurrency – Is Investing in Cryptocurrencies Wise? FORENSIC DOCUMENT UNIT TEST METHODS . 5. Many training courses concentrate on training the forensic examiner in specific tools or techniques. By comparing a number of known examples (the specimen) with the writing or signature that is in doubt (the questioned), a determination can often be made as to authorship. This is possible by the different reactions of different inks to varied wavelengths of light. How a WhatsApp Fake News Led to the Brutal Mob Lynching in Assam? In such cases, handwriting examination is applied to compare the handwriting with original samples collected from the scene. • Bank Drafts Say a suicide note is found at the investigation scene. Document examiners use scientific principles of handwriting and ink analysis for examining the different types of questioned documents. Examination - the critical study of a document which may be made with a magnifying glass, stereo microscope, special computer equipment, photography, or other specialized instruments. Between the time of her death and when she was found, evidence suggested that her body had been stored at low temperatures. At times, forensic document examiners are asked to evaluate evidence consisting of indentations left on a sheet of paper that was under a written document. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance in writing forensics reports. Some of the common types of questioned documents subjected to forensic document examination are stated below. • Contested Wills Questioned Document Examination generally involves handwriting examination in case of handwritten documents. Although the writing is hand printed, there are connections from letter to letter and places where adjacent letters touch. and secure file transfers can support a secure remote examination environment. The purpose of handwriting comparison • Alterations Other methods of ink examination include subjecting the questioned document to infrared radiation. • Kidnappings Principles of Forensic Document Examination Forensic#document#examiners#often#deal#withquestions#of#document# authenticity.#Todetermine#whether#adocument#is#genuine,#anexaminer# may#attempt#to#confirmwho#created#the#document,#determine#the# … • Latent images • Embedded invisible information For example, documents kept below other documents while writing may contain, Applications of Questioned Document Examination, Cases where Forensic Document Examination is Applied, Questioned Document Analysis by Document Examiners, Examination of Printers, Fax Machines, Typewriters and Photocopy Machines, Detection of Deletions, Erasures and Other Alterations. • Passports Plan for the Year Ahead – The Biggest Cybersecurity Threats of 2019, Prospects of an Ethical Hacking Career in India, Top 5 Types of Cybercrimes – Tips for Cybercrime Prevention, Cars Vulnerable to Hacking – The Facts and Fallacies of Car Hacking, Methods of Questioned Document Analysis Used by Questioned Document Examiners, 8 Handy Tips to Avoid Mobile Phone Scams Like a Pro, Be Aware of Olx Scams – Tips to Buy Safely on Olx, The Latest Weapon of Online Child Abuse – The Momo Challenge, Hard Drive Data Recovery – Top Causes of Hard Drive Crash, How to Prevent Cyber Bullying – Anti-Cyber bullying Laws in India, Importance of Data Recovery Services – Commonly Used Data Recovery Software, Prospects of a Career in Cyber Forensics – Cyber Forensics Courses in India, Top Mobile Phone Scams – Tips on How to Avoid Mobile Scams, List of Email Scams in India – Know How to Identify Email Scams. A Questioned Document is any handwritten/typewritten document having a questionable authenticity and subjected to a forensic document examination. A family Bible was introduced inscribed with the birth dates of children of the family. 7. • Forgeries As further illustration of this characteristic the known and questioned writing have been optically overlaid and photographed through a comparison microscope. Forensic document examination has mostly been associated with ‘white collar crimes’ involving business or financial deals. • Stamp Papers Requested Writing Specimens are writings that are dictated to the subject (writer) by the investigator. • Extortion Scope: This test method shall be used by the examiner to initially assess documentary evidence submitted for examination to the Forensic Document Unit (FDU). There is a shortage of document examiners in the criminal justice system due to the limited education and training programs available across the United States. Handwriting Examination involves the analysis of several handwriting characteristics such as letter and word spacing, speed, the position of the pen, capitalization, slope/slant, legibility and many other attributes. Notice this letter spacing in the exhibit below. Such specimens are purposely created under controlled conditions for the purpose of handwriting examination. There are many types of questioned documents that are examined by document examiners such as cheques, wills, licenses, suicide notes etc. Forensic document examination is an established field of scientific study which is a linked to law enforcement. 5 unbelievable things that can get hacked! They are handwriting experts, as well as experts in other areas of document examination, including machine printing processes; and obliterated, indented and erased entries. In this case, comments were added to a document. Typewriters, printing or photocopy machines also produce unique properties on its output depending on its abuse, damage, wear and tear. Many questioned document cases are proven on evidence other than handwriting examination. This helps them confirm or exclude suspects from the investigation. INITIAL EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT AND HANDLING 1.1. Unfortunately many forensic examiners, both in law enforcement and in private practice, fail to provide adequate detail in their report. The various types of questioned documents and the methods of questioned document examination are discussed in the following sections. The writing of the report is either not mentioned or is given very little attention. Although the ability to detect and disseminate intelligence about fraudulent documents is vital to border security, there are still countries lacking this capacity. This field of study started in the early 20th century as a method of identifying fraud and determining the authenticity of vital documentation. I consider CFB to be a treasure trove of forensic artifacts.

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